HIV is an infection caused by a virus that attacks the body's immune system.

How is it passed on?

HIV is most commonly passed on through vaginal or anal sex without a condom.

It can also be passed from mother to child at birth. HIV can be transmitted when injecting drug users share needles. In rare cases, HIV can be transmitted through transfusion of infected blood.


HIV infection may cause a flu like illness a few weeks after infection. After this, people with HIV usually remain symptom free for several years.

However, as their immune system becomes weaker they are less able to fight common infections, for example, pneumonia or tuberculosis. As the immune system also plays a role in preventing the development of cancer, people with HIV are more likely to acquire certain cancers.

Long term effects

AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection. This is when the immune system is so weak that it is unable to fight most infections.

'AIDS is over, if you want it'

We have the knowledge, ambition, and the tools to achieve this goal: if everyone knows their HIV status, and commences prompt HIV treatment if diagnosed positive, or accesses effective prevention initiatives if negative and at ongoing risk, then we can STOP new infections. Click here to view the Martin Fisher Foundation You Tube video 'AIDS is over, if you want it'.


Many people in the UK are carrying the infection without knowing it. It is important to test regularly for HIV infection (at least once a year, or whenever you have a new sexual partner).

The test for HIV is a blood test.

If you are getting a test in clinic, this is usually from a nurse who will take a blood sample with a needle. We also offer Rapid HIV tests, which use a blood finger prick test, and offer instant results (check our Service Finder to look for clinics offering Rapid HIV tests).

If you're doing one of our postal STI tests, the HIV test is also done via a finger prick. You can watch the blood test instruction video and follow this link to see the instruction leaflet that comes in the kit. HIV may take 45 days to show up in a test from the time of infection.

If you are in any doubt about when to test, you should do a test now, and another test at a later date.



There is no cure for HIV, but there are treatments that enable people to live a long and healthy life. Most treatments for HIV involve taking anti-viral medications.

Being on successful treatment and achieving what is called 'an undetectable viral load' also means that people cannot pass on the virus to sexual partners.

If your HIV test comes back as 'reactive', we may need to do a confirmation test first (if you tested via a postal test or a rapid HIV test).

If your test is confirmed positive, we will help support you to access follow-up care, support and treatment, to ensure you live a full and healthy life. We can also offer you support on telling your partners and helping them access HIV testing, PEP and follow up support.

How to protect yourself from HIV

  • Condoms and lubricant are very effective at preventing HIV infection. You can get free condoms at sexual health clinics.
  • PrEP is a pill you can take before sex that offers near complete protection from HIV. It is a very effective tool for people at risk of HIV, especially those who may find it difficult to use condoms every time. You can now get PrEP free on the NHS. You can read more about PrEP on our dedicated page here, or you can check which clinics can offer PrEP on our Service Finder. You can also buy generic PrEP online - check out IWantPrEPNow for more details.
  • If you have been exposed to HIV in the last 3 days, then a short course of anti-HIV medication (PEP) can prevent you contracting the infection. If you think you may have been exposed to HIV in the last 3 days, you should go to a Sexual Health Clinic immediately - search for PEP on our Service Finder. The sooner that you start this medication, the more likely it is to be effective. If you can't find a clinic open near you, you can also access PEP from any Accident and Emergency Department (A&E).

Links to other services

To make an appointment or for further advice, please call:

0300 303 1948

Phoneline open 08:15-16:45 Monday-Friday

(closed 12:30-13:30 for lunch)